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Monday, November 2, 2020 | History

2 edition of coordinated reform of tariffs and domestic indirect taxes found in the catalog.

coordinated reform of tariffs and domestic indirect taxes

Pradeep Mitra

coordinated reform of tariffs and domestic indirect taxes

  • 193 Want to read
  • 26 Currently reading

Published by Country Economics Dept., World Bank in Washington, DC (1818 H St., NW, Washington 20433) .
Written in English

    Places:
  • Developing countries.
    • Subjects:
    • Tariff -- Developing countries.,
    • Taxation -- Developing countries.

    • Edition Notes

      StatementPradeep Mitra.
      SeriesPolicy, research, and external affairs working papers ;, WPS 490
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsHF2580.9 .M58 1990
      The Physical Object
      Pagination47 p. ;
      Number of Pages47
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL1582782M
      LC Control Number91107367

      A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour.   The reason that they do not harm trade like a conventional tariff is because the tax rate at each destination is the same for domestic and foreign goods, thus the OECD refers to it as a “neutral.   Moreover, for an importing country with no domestic production of a resource, an import tariff is identical to a domestic tax. This means that trade policy objectives can be met without recourse to import tariffs, and consequently without falling under WTO disciplines. The use of these instruments results is an inefficient policy equilibrium.


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coordinated reform of tariffs and domestic indirect taxes by Pradeep Mitra Download PDF EPUB FB2

The Coordinated Reform of Tariffs and Domestic Indirect Taxes Pradeep Mitra Tariff reform for trade liberalization must be seen as part of a broader program of tax reforn. Customs duties on imports should be geared chiefly to protection. Reductions in such duties to promote an outward-oriented development strategy should be.

A key obstacle to fundamental tariff reform in many countries is the revenue loss that it ultimately implies.

This paper establishes and explores a simple and practicable strategy for realizing the efficiency gains from tariff reform without reducing public revenue, showing that for a small economy a cut in import duties (respectively, export taxes) combined with a point-for-point increase in Cited by: Tariff reduction encourage outward-oriented development will work only if alternative sources can be found to replenish revenue lost in the cause of reducing protection.

Integrated reform of tariffs with taxes would seem to be the answer, but so far analysts have often tended to treat the two instruments separately.

This article looks at the tariff and tax instruments used by. Abstract. Tariffs on imports protect domestic producers and raise public revenue. The World Development Report finds that effective rates of protection to manufacturing in developing countries typically exceed 40 percent; while the World Development Report estimates that the importance of import taxes in tax revenue is over 20 percent in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and in the Middle Author: Pradeep Mitra.

reform, (2) the effect of domestic indirect taxes has recommended a uniform nominal tariff. This on protection, and (3) the structure of protection. could be seen as the logical culmination of The review is admittedly selective and the attempts to narrow the range of tariffs.

Tariff and tax reform: do World Bank recommendations integrate revenue and protection objectives. (English) Abstract. Tariff reform aimed at reducing domestic protection and the bias against exports holds the threat of widening the fiscal deficit by causing tariff revenue to decline.

-Our analytical results provide a theoretical rationale for the rules of thumb for coordinated reform in tariffs and domestic indirect taxes proposed by Mitra (). References Ahmad, E. and N. Stern,The theory of reform and Indian indirect taxes, Journal of Public Econom Diewert, W., A.

It is shown that if tax revenues are lump-sum distributed and firms compete over prices, then coordinated tariff-tax reforms improve welfare for a low degree of product differentiation, whereas. issues in tariff reform and on the consequent need to develop in-depth princi-ples that should guide the coordinated reform of tariffs and indirect taxes.1 Tax and Tariff Instruments Imports are usually taxed through (a) customs duties applied to the c.i.f.

Indirect Tax Books, Online Indirect Tax Books, Buy Indirect Tax Books, at very best price in India on Shop Professional and Technical Books at Meripustak.

Taxation In today’s world taxation, whether it is domestic or International it has taken a paradigm shift. The cost of inventory should include all direct and indirect costs incurred to prepare the item for sale.

This would include the purchase price, plus any overhead, freight and taxes — including tariffs. However, how you record the tariffs in your general ledger software is more of an art than a science and requires more thought. of reforms: i) proportional tariff cuts coordinated with a strictly enforced value-added tax; and ii) proposed tariff cuts under a regional free trade agreement.

It is shown that a revenue-neutral tax reform is conditional on the effectiveness with which domestic taxes are enforced. Furthermore, loss of revenue as a result of intra-regional. Coordinating tax reforms in the poorest countries: can lost tariffs be recouped.

(English) Abstract. A revenue-neutral switch from trade taxes to domestic consumption taxes is fraught with implementation challenges in countries with a large informal sector. The indirect tax reform of this kind can increase residents' welfare and government revenue when the initial tariffs are relatively larger to the consumption taxes.

This paper examines the effects of a coordinated tax reform by replacing import tariffs with point-by-point increases in consumption taxes for a small-open developing tourism economy. This chapter studies the effects of welfare-maximizing and revenue-neutral tariff reduction and coordinated domestic tax reforms carried out until the market is completely liberalized.

The setting is an international oligopoly model in which domestic firms, fully foreign-owned subsidiaries, and foreign exporting firms compete in the home market. The results on a coordinated reform of import tariff and VAT show that, the incomplete coverage of VAT due to the existence of a large informal sector renders the results derived earlier in the literature unhelpful at best and potentially misleading as the basis of indirect tax policy reform in developing countries.

On selective indirect tax reform in developing countries M. Shahe Emrana,b,c,*, (compared to a turnover tax), and of undue protection to the domestic production of import substitutes (compared to an import tariff), to mention a couple.

almost exclusively deals with the coordinated reform of import tariffs and consumption. It implies that a percentage reduction in tariff rates leads to a and percent increase in share of income taxes and domestic taxes in goods and services on total tax, while a percentage reduction in tariff rates is associated with a percent reduction in international trade tax.

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign is a form of regulation of foreign trade and a policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or safeguard domestic industry. Traditionally, states have used them as a source of income.

The foregoing argument is, on the other hand, modified if the degree of decreasing costs is high enough to have p′ − c″ > 2 illustrates the effect of the reform in this case. While the effect of the tariff reduction is the same as the previous case, the Home government must lower the consumption tax.

This is because the reduced tariff induces a decrease in x, and hence the Home. It estimates changes to revenue and domestic production associated with two sets of reforms: i) proportional tariff cuts coordinated with a strictly enforced value-added tax; and ii) proposed.

The recommendation to shift away from trade taxes towards domestic consumption and income taxes reflects the consensual view that trade taxes are a relatively inefficient way of raising revenue. Nevertheless, despite the theoretical argument for a simultaneous tariff and tax system reform.

Book. Jan ; E.K. Choi a package of coordinated tax reform by replacing tariffs with emission taxes can lower pollution emissions and increase market access and hence improve residents.

Identifying compensating revenue measures to offset any revenue loss from tariff reform, by improving domestic taxation and the tax administration. Promoting reform by holding information seminars and discussions with the government agencies concerned (customs, tax, trade, industry, and agriculture departments) and the private sector.

This paper examines the effects of a coordinated tax reform by replacing import tariffs with point-by-point increases in consumption taxes for a small-open developing tourism economy. Takumi Naito & Kenzo Abe, "Welfare‐ and Revenue‐Enhancing Tariff and Tax Reform under Imperfect Competition," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol.

10(6), pagesHatzipanayotou & Sajal Lahiri & Michael Michael, "Trade and domestic tax reforms in the presence of a public good and different neutrality conditions.

Tariff reform aimed at reducing domestic protection and the bias against exports holds the threat of widening the fiscal deficit by causing tariff revenue to decline. Because the success of an adjustment program depends critically on the correction of fiscal imbalances to achieve stabilization, tariff reforms must be coordinated with tax policy.

Excise duties on fuel, liquor, and cigarette taxes are all considered examples of indirect taxes. By contrast, income tax is the clearest example of a direct tax, since the person earning the.

Abe, Kenzo, "The Target Rates of Tariff and Tax Reform," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(4), pagesTsakiris & Michael Michael & Panos Hatzipanayotou, "Asymmetric Tax Policy Responses in Large Economies With Cross.

identifies welfare improving sufficient conditions of a coordinated tariff and commodity tax reform in a small open economy with endogenous provision of public 1 According to the World Bank (), during the s in low- and medium-income countries, the share of domestic indirect taxes (i.e., taxes on goods and services) in total current.

Downloadable. We examine welfare and revenue effects of tariff and tax reform in a country importing final and intermediate goods, both of which are produced under imperfect competition. We consider two reform strategies. First, lower the sum of a consumption tax and a tariff on the intermediate good, and leave the sum of the consumption tax and a tariff on the final good unchanged.

Direct Tax Books, Online Direct Tax Books, Buy Direct Tax Books, at very best price in India on Shop Professional and Technical Books at Meripustak. Taxation In today’s world taxation, whether it is domestic or International it has taken a paradigm shift.

However, protectionism works like a subsidy, nonetheless. The American satirist Ambrose Bierce defined “tariff” this way in his book, The Devil’s Dictionary: “Tariff, n. A scale of taxes on imports, designed to protect the domestic producer against the greed of his consumer.”.

Having adopted the goods and services tax (GST), India should not regress in indirect tax reform. Past experience shows that import substitution through higher tariffs is not a good way to promote domestic manufacturing. So, the notion that raising import duty would help promote ‘Make in India’ is seriously flawed.

A tariff is an indirect tax—an above the cost premium levied at the time of import—that negatively impacts profit margin unless it can be passed on to the ultimate consumer. One of the main drivers of a tariff is to protect certain domestic industries and jobs since consumers may prefer to purchase lower priced domestic versus higher priced.

The wave of tax reforms that began in the mids and accelerated in the it difficult to enact and implement comprehensive and coordinated tax re- for example: “Indirect tax policy in. GST: Goods and Services Tax - GST Books, Buy GST Books, GST Books Online, GST Books For CA Final, GST Ready Reckoner, GST Tariff, GST Rates, GST Acts Rules & Forms, GST Online, GST Laws Manual, GST Bookstore, Buy GST Books Online, Buy Goods & Services Tax Books Online in.

Thanks to higher growth and tax reforms, tax revenues of Centre and states, which fell from per cent of gross domestic product in to the next year, recovered to almost 16 per cent in The loss in revenue was due to reduced customs and excise duties as a result of the reforms started in Growth made taxes buoyant.

When a specific consumption tax “t” is implemented, the consumer price increases by the amount of the tax to P e free trade is maintained, the producer’s price would remain at P increase in the consumer price reduces domestic demand to D When a specific production subsidy “s” is implemented, the producer price will rise by the amount of the tax to P P, but it will.

Money is introduced via a generalized cash-in-advance (henceforth CIA) constraint, in such a way that cash requirements per unit of value purchased differ across goods.

In such a framework, section 3 reexamines the effects of isolated tariff reforms and coordinated tariff-tax reforms on welfare, revenue, and market access. Tariffs help uncompetitive industries. By putting a penalty on imports in the form of a tax, domestic producers that would otherwise lose market share to .Kenyan tax revenue was raised from sales taxes and import/export duties.

Attempts to increase tax revenue in Kenya have focused on closing the ‘taxation gap’ and expanding the tax base. Since the main focus of tax reform has centred on trade liberalisation and moving from a sales tax was to system of value added tax (VAT).That represents a possible set of import taxes on an additional $ billion worth of goods at 25 percent, or roughly $ billion in new taxes on the domestic economy.

Once one accounts for the direct impact outlined above and estimates the indirect impact ensuing symmetrical retaliation from China, at a minimum, there could be an increase of.